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Fruit
fruit

The use of fruit

Fresh fruit is most commonly used in its natural state, especially as a garnish. However fruit can be used creatively in many different ways for example:

  1. Desserts
  2. Pastries
  3. As an accompaniment for meat, fish, poultry or vegetables
apple pie
  1. Examples of the use of fruit in desserts:
  • Peaches or pears poached in wine
  • Flambéed bananas
  • Fruit salad
  • Apricots with meringue – in the oven
  • Beignets
  • Fruit sauce or coulis
  • Another assortment of desserts based on fresh fruit include mousses, crèmes, sorbets, bavarois and vacherins
fruit salad
  1. Examples of the use of fruit with pastries
  • Tarts
  • Flans
  • Timbales
apfelstrudel
  1. Examples of fruit as an accompaniment for main courses:
  • Figs with raw ham or partridge
  • Grapefruit with crab and fish
  • Cherries with duck or game
  • Grapes with quail
  • Plums with rabbit or pork
  • Apple with red cabbage
  • Mango with beef
stewed pear

As well as the above, preserved fruits are also used in the kitchen.  Fruit is preserved to extend its shelf life and allows products to be used in other interesting ways.
There are various methods for preserving fruit – the following are the most important methods.

    • Drying, for example raisins, sultanas, plums, pears, apricots, apples
    • Pasteurising of fruit in jars or tins
    • Addition of sugar for example candied fruits, jam and jelly
    • Addition of alcohol for example brandy to cherries
    • Deep-freezing of soft fruit

    raisins

The nutritional value of fruit

Fruit is an important food type and is a major source of the daily intake of vitamin C, minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, iron, calcium, sodium and fibres.
Depending on the type, fruit consists of between 80 and 85% water; melons up to 95%.  Fruit is low in calories.  The amount of calories is  40 – 70 per 100-gram fruit. The organic acids in fruit are citric, apple and tartaric acid.  These acids give a fresh, tart flavour, which stimulate the digestive system.

The carbohydrates, single or complex, take the form of pectin, sugar and cellulose.  Bananas contain starch.  Some types of fruit for example bananas, apples and black berries tend to block the bowels whereas other fruits such as figs and plums work as a laxative in the digestive system.

 

Purchasing fruit

Fruit is produced in large amounts and in a great many varieties.  When purchasing fruit, apart from using the eyes, it is important, where possible, to use the nose and hands to check which fruits are ripe and which are hard.   Fruit is a very sensitive commodity.  It is therefore important to buy it in as soon as possible before use and only the amount that is required.   Never be tempted to buy in bulk at reduced prices!  The risk of decay is high and buying in bulk can often turn into a disadvantage or even a disaster. 
Fruits such as raspberries or berries should be picked when ripe and sold immediately. However there are other fruits that can be picked unripe and which will ripen during storage such as bananas.  This is due to the presence of ethylene gas.

fruit market

When fruit is purchased, the following points should be carefully considered:

  1. The type of fruits available
  2. The physical condition of the fruit
  3. The quality hallmark of the various types of fruit
  4. The price of the various types of fruit
  1. The type of fruits available

Due to their similarities and the way they are used in the kitchen, fruits can be divided into five main groups:

    1. Hard fruit such as apples and pears
    2. Soft fruit such as strawberries and berries (also sub-sectioned as berries)
    3. Stoned fruit such as cherries and peaches
    4. Citrus fruit such as lemons and oranges
    5. Exotic fruit such as pineapple and papaya

a. Hard fruit

In general hard fruit has a thin skin and firm to juicy texture.   Seeds or pips are found in the core.  Generally hard fruits can be stored for longer periods.  Examples are apples and pears.

granny apple

b. Soft fruit

Soft fruit such as strawberries, raspberries, brambles and other berries do not have a skin or film worth mentioning (completely edible).  Soft fruit is very fragile and only suitable for direct use.

soft fruit

c. Stoned fruit

Stoned fruit are fruits that are made up of three different layers.  On the outside is a substantial skin followed by the fruit flesh and in the centre a stone.  The skin is eaten or not, depending on the type of fruit, for example plums or cherry skins are eaten whereas mango and peach skin are not.

stoned fruit

d. Citrus fruit

Citrus fruit have a leathery skin which contains essential oils (or aromatic oils).  The flesh consists of white transparent films that are filled with juice retaining bubbles (also known as segments or parts).  The fruit is made up of several segments.   Examples are oranges, lemons, mandarins and grapefruits.

citrus fruit

f. Exotic fruit

Exotic fruit come in various shapes and sizes.  They are all from tropical or sub-tropical countries. Examples are bananas, kakis, kiwis and pomegranates.

exotic fruit

Not all fruit are available all year round (see following chart).

  1. Physical condition of the fruit

Fruit can be purchased in one of two ways:

    1. Fresh
    2. Preserved

a. Fresh fruit

Fresh fruit must be consumed at the right moment.  Ripe fruit has mostly a slightly soft consistency, is aromatic and sweet and has a colour, which can vary from green/yellow and/or orange/red to purple/black.  Fresh fruit can be eaten with no special preparation.  Unripe fruit such as bananas may be bought and allowed to ripen further.

b. Preserved fruit
Preserved fruit is fruit that has undergone a process, which will lengthen its shelf life – allowing it to be stored far longer than fresh fruit.  Examples of preserved fruit are dried, pasteurised, candied or pickled in alcohol.
As well as fresh and preserved fruit, products made from a fruit base are very common.  These include jams, jellies, syrups, fruit juices, soft drinks and alcoholic drinks.

 

  1. The quality hallmarks of the various types of fruit

Most types of fruit are sorted into quality classes – the EG norms.  Size, shape and colour play an important role in deciding the quality.
The legally defined quality classes are not always the same for the all types of fruit.  However it is important that whatever the fruit, it meets the quality requirements in whatever class it has been put.
There are four quality classes:

Extra class: This is fruit of the highest quality.  The fruit and the skin are fully developed and have the correct shape, size and colour.  The stalk is undamaged and the fruit flesh intact.

Class 1: Fruit of good quality and the size of the fruit determined.  Slight blemishes in the size and colour are acceptable.

Class 2:  Fruit of ‘sellable’ quality

Class 3: Fruit used only for industrial purposes.

A reputable fruit supplier to a restaurant kitchen will only sell extra class and class 1 fruit.

4. The price of the various types of fruit

Fruit prices are set daily, weekly or monthly. Depending on the availability and the season, the prices are fixed daily at auction for the different types of fruit.  If the fruit is in short supply and the demand high, the price will increase – strawberries tend to be very expensive around Christmas.  On the other hand if the supply is high and the demand low, the price will drop and be a bonus for the consumer.
Exotic fruit is normally expensive due to the high transport costs and the irregular supply on the open market.

Product name

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Hard fruit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Apples

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cox’s Pippin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elstar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Golden delicious

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Granny Smith

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sweet Caroline

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sweet apple

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                         
Pears

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beurré Hardy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conference

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Doyenné du Comice

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gieser Wilderman

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saint Rémy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Triomphe de Vienne

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quince                        

 

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April

May

June

July

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Dec.

Soft fruit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Strawberries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wild strawberries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brambles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grapes (white and black)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raspberries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Melon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Melon, Charentais

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Melon, Gallia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Melon, water

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Melon, winter/honey

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Melon, white sugar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orange pineapple

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rosehips

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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April

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Berries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Blueberries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bilberries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cranberries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gooseberries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Red currants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cowberries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

White currants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Black currants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                         
Stoned Fruit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Apricot                        

Cherries- sweet

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cherries - sour                        
Nectarines                        

Peaches

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plums - greenhouse                        
Plums - outside                        

 

Jan

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April

May

June

July

Aug.

Sep.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Citrusfruit
                       
Lemons                        

Grapefruit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kumquats                        
Limes                        

Mandarins

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pomelo                        
Oranges                        

Uglis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                         
Exotic Fruits
                       

 

Jan

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Pineapple                        
Avocado                        
Banana                        
Blimbing                        
Tamarillos                        
Cactus figs                        
Carambolas                        
Cherimoyas                        
Dates                        
Pomegranate                        
Guavas                        
Japanese medlars                        
Winter cherries                        
Kakis                        
Kiwis                        
Lychees                        
Mangosteen                        
Mangos                        
Olives                        
Papajas                        
Passion fruit                        
Ramoutans                        
Figs                        

The handling of fresh fruit in the kitchen

It is convenient to differentiate between the various phases of handling fruit in the kitchen.

  1. Transport
  2. Delivery in the kitchen
  3. Storage
  4. Preparation
  5. Cooking
  1. Transport

When fruit is in transport, distinction is made between the various types:

    1. Hard fruit
    2. Soft fruit
    3. Stoned fruit
    4. Citrus fruit
    5. Exotic fruit

a. Hard fruit

Hard fruit is harvested when it is almost ripe and transported.  Between plucking and purchasing can be quite a time gap.  It is important that the fruit is transported at a maximum temperature of 5º C.  Hard fruit that has been brought to room temperature cannot be re-cooled. The quality of the fruit quickly decreases if this happens.  Hard fruit is packed in cases or boxes for safe transportation.

General rule 1:  Do not break the cooling chain

The cooling chain must not be broken during transportation and delivering of hard fruit. This is particularly important for fruit that is stored for a longer period of time.  Fruit should be bought in small quantities and only the daily requirement removed from cold storage.

b. Soft fruit

As the name suggests, soft fruit is soft and very fragile.  It is harvested ripe or almost ripe. It should be quickly transported in cool conditions at a temperature of 1 - 2º C.  Soft fruit is mostly transported in small carton containers with a maximum weight of 500 grams, though often it is only 150 or 250 grams.  The limited amount of weight ensures that the fruit at the bottom of the containers is not squashed.   The carton absorbs any excess juice released from the fruit.  This helps in the short term to avoid that the fruit becomes damp, mouldy and rotting.

c. Stoned fruit

Fruit containing stones is normally harvested before it is completely ripe.  These fruits are very sensitive to bumps and rubbing.  This type of fruit does not store well so must be transported reasonably quickly.  The time between harvesting and consuming is therefore also shorter.  Stoned fruit should be transported cool at a temperature of not above 12º C.  Like hard fruit, breaking the cooling chain has a negative effect on the fruit.  Stoned fruit such as peaches and nectarines are packed individually (in specially made trays) whereas cherries are transported loose in small boxes or chests.

d. Citrus fruit

Since citrus fruit can be stored for longer periods, fast transportation is less important than with other fruit.  However citrus fruit is sensitive to low temperatures.  The temperature of transportation should be ideally carried out between 2 - 8º.  Citrus fruit is packed per hundred in boxes.  They are often packed individually in absorbent paper that can absorb the juice of any leaking fruit.

e. Exotic fruit

Exotic fruit is transported great distances in an unripe condition.  Most exotic fruit is sensitive to low temperatures and is transported ideally not under ± 7º C.  Exotic fruit is often very fragile and is therefore normally packed individually for transportation.  This packaging is very important and usually includes absorbent paper and specially formed boxes or trays.

2. Delivery of fruit in the kitchen

When fresh fruit is delivered to the kitchen, attention must be paid to the following points:

    1. Is what is delivered what was ordered?
    2. Has the correct amount and weight been delivered?
    3. Is the quality up to standard?

Check carefully the quality hallmarks and especially the following points:

    1. Damages to the fruit due to rough handling, as this can quickly cause bacterial decay such as yeasts and moulds.
    2. Moisture loss whereby the fruit becomes limp and looses its fresh look
    3. Drying out: the fruit uses its reserves and becomes wrinkly and shrivelled.
    4. Low temperature decay, especially in exotic fruit that has been transported too cold.  The skin will show watery spots that are easily attacked by micro organisms.
    5. Colour changes, such as brown colouring that occurs due to the influence of enzyme processes
    6. Rotting of fruit due to the above processes which renders the fruit unusable

Note:  Remove any damaged products immediately to avoid decay spreading to other fruit.

General rule 2:  Pay attention for signs of decay

Always check fruit for signs of decay.  Fruit often looks fine on the outside but is blemished inside.  This is especially true of exotic fruit as it is often ripened in the wrong way.  It may feel ripe but is not – especially in mangos, papayas and avocado’s this is a common fault. These mangos do not taste juicy, sweet and aromatic but are dry, sour and sometimes bitter.

decaying peach

Damp-rot is recognizable on soft and damp spots on fruit and roots and any slimy areas. This disease can be found for example on root ginger.

Nestrot is recognizable as the dark brown, soft patches on fruit.  This disorder can be found particularly on pears and apples.

Fruit tree cancer is recognizable as the dark areas around the crown of fruit.  This disorder can be found particularly on kaki and mangosteen.

Brown heart disorder can only be discovered when fruit is cut through the centre – and is recognizable as the brown colour in and around the core.  It is most common in pears and apples.

Dry rot is recognizable as the dry/dried in skin of the fruit.  This is most common in passion fruit, mangosteen, kiwi and avocado.

Corking is can only be discovered when fruit is cut through the centre – and is recognizable as light brown dried spots. It is lack of calcium. Only when it is very severe is it visible on the outside of the fruit. It is most common in apples and pears.

Stalk rot is recognizable as brown discolouration in combination with soft fruit around the stalk.  Stalk rot is most common in apples and pears.

Fruit rot is recognizable as white fungus on the outside of soft and sensitive fruit such as berries, strawberries and brambles.

Carbonic acid injury is similar to dry rot and is not seen from the outside of the fruit. It is recognizable when the fruit is cut through and dead brown patches around the core are visible. Again this disease is most common in apples and pears.

Mildew is recognizable as the light fluffy fungus layer on fruits.  It is most commonly found in bilberries and red currants.

3. Storage of fruit

When fruit has been delivered to the kitchen it should be separated into one of the three following groups:

  1. Fruit to be used straight away
  2. Fruit that has to ripen
  3. Fruit to be stored in the cooling

Ripe and freshly harvested fruit is perishable.  This process can be slowed down by:

    1. Storing the fruit at a temperature around 4º C whereby the reactions are slowed down.  In exotic fruit the low temperatures will cause a change in the metabolism and they will obtain a different taste. For this reason they are better stored at temperatures around 8º C.
    2. Ordering fruit as required and removing only what is required from the cooling.  A daily supply of fresh fruit is the ideal situation.

After harvesting, fruit is transported cool from the farmer to the consumer.  The quality of stored fruit has been drastically improved over the last several years due to the use of ‘controlled atmosphere’ cool cells.  Not only can the temperature be regulated but also the air pressure.  By managing the climate inside the cool cells, the breathing of the fruit can be reduced, extending its life.
Deciding the time of harvesting unripe fruit is more difficult as the ripening process must be initiated.  Fruit that is well into the ripening process cannot be stored so long. Fruit that is harvested too early does not have sufficient flavour.  By storing unripe with ripe fruit, helps to speed the ripening process as ripe fruit produces ethylene, which can ripen unripe fruit quicker.

In the following chart the ideal ripening temperatures for the various types of fruit can be clearly seen.

  1. The preparation

In the preparation of fruit, distinction is made between the following types:

    1. Hard fruit
    2. Soft fruit
    3. Stoned fruit
    4. Citrus fruit
    5. Exotic fruit

a. Hard fruit

Hard fruit can be prepared in many different ways depending on what the end product is.  It can be washed, peeled, cored and sliced before further preparation or washed and unpeeled depending on the requirements.

Discolouring during preparation:

Hard fruit discolours quickly.  The outside of the fruit becomes brown due to the working of the enzymes that are under the influence of oxygen. This can be avoided by sprinkling the fruit with the juice of citrus fruit (lemon). For this reason, hard fruit should be prepared last when making fruit salad.  The acids from the other fruit will prevent discolouring of the hard fruit.

b. Soft fruit

Soft fruit is fragile.  The preparation is again depending on the end product.  Remove any damaged or mouldy fruit.
Wash the fruit quickly in gently flowing water (otherwise too much aroma is lost) and allow it to drip in a sieve or dry very carefully. Remove the crowns/stalks after washing as otherwise they will absorb too much water into the cavities.

Ready-made prepared fruit
Prepared fresh fruit – that is fruit that is washed, peeled and/or chopped, skinned and/or pitted, is widely available nowadays from wholesalers or greengrocers.

c. Stoned fruit

Stoned fruit is normally only washed.  Ensure that only ripe stoned fruit is used. It is recognizable by the stone being loose in the fruit flesh.  Peaches and apricots are usually skinned, as the velvety skin can be a bit tough.

d. Citrus fruit

Apart from lemons and limes, all the common citrus fruit can be eaten raw.  Only the juice and skin are used from lemons and limes.  The skin is normally removed from oranges, mandarins and clementines. Grapefruits and pomelos are usually cut in half and the flesh removed from the tissues separating the segments.  Citrus fruit as orange kumquats and limequats can be eaten with skin and all.

e.Exotic fruit

Exotic fruit require no further preparation for use apart from washing.

Enzymes
Kiwis, pineapple, mangos and papayas contain protein-splitting enzymes.  One of the characteristics of these enzymes is that they breakdown the gelatinous tissues in meat whereby the meat becomes softer and more tender.  Another less positive characteristic of these enzymes is that they damage the proteins in dairy products.  Dishes with a combination of dairy products and exotic fruits become bitter in flavour and are watery.   When a bavarois made from a milk base is being prepared, the fruit must be heated to 80º C to make the enzymes safe for use.

  1. Cooking

As previously mentioned, most fruit is often used raw.   However various cooking techniques can be used to cook fruit such as poaching, flambéing and frying or deep-frying.

   Preserved fruit

Mankind has long looked for ways to extend the life of fruit.  The most common ways of preserving fruit are the following:

  1. Drying
  2. Pasteurising
  3. Addition of sugar
  4. Addition of alcohol
  5. Deep-freezing
  1. Dried fruit

Dried fruit are fruit that are dried in the sun (outside) – sun-dried or in drying tunnels. During drying, the moisture percentage reduces, the weight becomes lighter and the fruit shrinks.  The colour becomes darker and the aroma and flavours change.  Dried fruit contains relatively more sugar than fresh fruit, therefore more energy.  The nutritional value of dried fruit that has been soaked or stewed is almost the same as fresh fruit, with the exception of vitamin C, which is lower.
Light coloured fruit such as apples, pears and apricots undergo a sulphur-treatment before drying to avoid discolouring of the fruit and fungi forming.

Storage of dried fruit
Dried fruit must be stored in a dry, cool and dark storage area.  They cannot be stored for longer than one year.
Dried fruit must be packed properly to avoid contact with rodents or insects.

 raisins

Decrease in quality and signs of decay
Dried fruits discolour due to the presence of light.  A white film on the fruit is the result of the crystallisation of sugar.  They can still be used provided they are soaked a bit longer.  Dried fruit, which is stored in damp conditions, will begin to ferment or mould.

Types of dried fruit
Raisins are dried grapes.  There are many types of raisins as there are many types of grapes that are suitable for drying.  The seedless Sultana’s and currants are most common.
Dates are the stoned fruit of the date palms.  They are partly or wholly dried.  The sugar percentage is 50% or more.  They are normally glazed so that partly dried dates do not dry out during transportation or storage.
Figs are collected when they fall, slightly shrivelled, from the fig trees.
Plums are dried in tunnels and harden in time due to the lack of moisture whereby the sugar crystallises. They are most commonly used for compotes and plum mousses.
After harvesting, apricots are sulphurized, dried in the sun, halved and stoned, washed and dried in tunnels Apricots are juicy fruits with a strong smell and sweet but fresh flavour.
Peaches, apples and pears are treated in the same way as apricots.

2. Pasteurised fruit
Whole fruits, parts of fruit, fruit purees and mousses, compotes, fruit desserts and sauces can all be pasteurised.  Pasteurisation of these products in tins or jars is sufficient.  Distinction is made between whole, half, or pieces of fruit in tins or glass jars in

  1. Water, normally unsweetened
  2. Light, heavy or extra heavy syrup
  3. Light, heavy or extra heavy sweetened fruit juice
orange juice

3. Preserved fruit
Preserved fruits have long storage lives because the fruit, or a part of the fruit (such as the peel), is saturated with sugars.  The sugar content maybe as much as 65 – 80% of the total weight.  After preserving, the fruits can be candied or glazed.  Candied fruit is a technique whereby the fruit is covered in a layer of very fine sugar crystals.  Glazed products have a smooth, shiny sugar layer.

Types of preserved fruit
Preserved cherries (glazed) or bigarreaux are used in cakes or as a garnish.
Candied apple peel is the preserved skin of the cider apple.
Candied orange peel or is the preserved skins of the orange varieties however, lemon skin is also preserved.
Cocktail cherries are preserved cherries that are soaked in an alcohol solution.
Jam, jelly and syrup are made of fruit and/or juice with sugar, which is boiled and pasteurised.

  1. Fruit soaked in alcohol

Both fresh and dried fruit can be preserved in alcohol.
Some examples are:

    1. Plums in armagnac
    2. Dried apricots in brandy
    3. Raisins in brandy
    4. Fruit in rum

If the end product contains less than 15% alcohol, a heat process lengthens the shelf life.  After opening, the storage life is limited.

5. Deep-freeze fruit

The technique of deep-freezing fruit is normally carried out on fresh fruit such as raspberries, strawberries, brambles and berries.  They are frozen loosely by a fast freezing method to a temperature of minus 40º C.  After freezing the fruit is packed into deep-freeze bags and supplied with an etiquette giving the packaging date and sell-by date.  Pureed fruit can also be frozen.
Freezing changes the structure of fruit – after defrosting the fruit is softer and the colour less attractive.  It is not as suitable for fruit salads but excellent for coulis and sauces.

6.6    Harvesting of fruit

Fruit production requires professional knowledge and special care.  The production of apples or pears on trees is very different to the production of fruit on bushes or of strawberries that grow on plants on the ground.  Production of fruit has been traditionally carried out in the full soil.  Greenhouses are used to harvest certain fruits earlier, for example strawberries and for the production of other fruit that require a hotter temperature than the climate of that particular country for example grapes in Holland.

In Holland the climate is ideal for producing apples and pears. In the middle and west of the country there are vast numbers of fruit producers and in Zeeland, in the south, the conditions are ideal for pears.  Nowadays almost all the fruit is grown on short-stemmed trees.  Apples are divided into two groups: eating apples and cooking apples.

Pears are also divided into two groups, eating and cooking pears.  In Holland there are over a hundred different varieties.  Quince is less common.  From February to May pears are imported from the southern hemisphere.
 
Take note when buying apples and pears that have been produced environmentally friendly that there is a butterfly on the case cards.  Sixty percent of the Dutch local market of apples and eighty percent of the pear market are produced environmentally friendly.

Product name

Citrus fruit

Storage temperature º C

Relative
humidity

Cooled storage

Remarks

Extended
ripening temperature º C

Serving
temperature
of fruit º C

 

Lemon

 

Grapefruit

 

Kumquat
Lime

Mandarin
-Clementine
- Satsuma

Pomelo
Orange

 

Ugli

 

Green 14 – 15

Yellow 11-13

Israel 6-9
Florida 10
California 15

9 – 10
5 – 9

 

0 – 3
4

10 – 14
0 – 7

 

5 - 9

 

85 – 90

 

85 – 90

 

85 – 90
90

 

85 –90

 

85 – 90
85 – 90

 

90

 

2 months

 

2 – 3 months

 

3-6 weeks
3-6 weeks

 

8-12 weeks

 

2-3 mths
4-18 weeks
depending on race
4-6 weeks

 

Sensitive
To low temp.

Cover to
Prevent drying

 

Cover with plastic
As above

 

 

> 14

 

> 14

 

 

> 14

 

> 14

 

> 14

> 14

> 14

 

10 – 15

 

10 - 15

 

 

10 – 15

 

10 – 15

 

10 – 15

10 – 15

10 – 15

Product name

Exotic fruit

Storage Temperature º C

Relative
Humidity

Cooled Storage

Remarks

Extended
Ripening Temperature º C

Serving
Temperature
Of fruit º C

 

Pineapple –
- unripe
- half ripe
- ripe

Avocado –
Imported from:
Subtropics
Tropics

Banana
- fry
- dessert

- fruit

 

Bilimbi (star fruit)
Tamarillo (tomato fruit)
Cactus fig

Carambola (star fruit)
Cherimoya

 

Date

Pomegranate
Guave
Japanese Medlar
Winter Cherry

 

Kaki

 

Kiwi

 

 

Lychee
Mangosteen

 

10
8 – 10
7 – 8

 

7 – 8
13 – 14

 

12 – 13
- green 12- 14
- yellow 14
- green 12-14
- yellow 14

8 – 10

0 – 2

3 – 5

5 – 8

10

 

0 – 1

0 – 2
8 – 9
0 – 2
10 – 15

 

0

0

 

1½ - 2
5 - 6

 

85- 90

 

 

80 –90
80 – 90

 

90 – 95
85 –95
75 – 85
85 – 95
75 – 85

90

80 – 85

85 – 90

85 – 90

85

 

80 – 85

80 – 85
85 – 90
80 – 85
70 – 80

 

90 – 95

90 – 95

 

90 – 95
85

 

1 – 3 week

 

 

2 – 3 week
2 – 3 week

 

3 – 4 week

 

 

2 weeks

4 – 6 wks

2 weeks

2 – 3 wks

1 – 2 wks

 

± 1 week

4 – 6 wks
1 – 3 wks
2 – 3 mths
2 days ripe
2 – 3 mths

 

7 – 14 days

2 – 3 mths

 

2 – 3 wks
1 – 2 wks

 

Store green fruit
at 12º C

 

Storage
temp. depends on type

Various
types

 

 

 

 

Harvest ripe

 

Sensitive in transport
Harvest ripe

 

 

Store dry.
Keep cherry in
lampion to
protect against drying out
Cover with plastic to avoid drying out
As above

 

Pick ripe

 

10 – 15

 

 

20 – 25

 

20

 

 

20

> 14

> 14

20

18 – 20

 

> 14

20
20 – 25
> 14
> 14

 

20

15

 

> 14
> 14

 

10 – 15

 

 

10 – 15

 

10 – 15

 

 

10 – 15

10 – 15

10 – 15

10 – 15

10 – 15

 

10 – 15

10 – 15
10 – 15
10 - 15
10 – 15

 

10 – 15

10 – 15

 

10 – 15
10 - 15

Product name
Exotic fruit

Storage temperature º C

Relative humidity

Cooled storage

Remarks

Ripening temperature
In º C

Serving
Temperature
º C

Mango

Olive

Papaya
Passion fruit
yellow
purple

Ramboetan

Fig

Dessert fig

10- 13

2 – 6

2 – 6

8 – 10
8

5 – 6

0 – 1
- ripe 0 - 4
-unripe 3 - 5

85

90 – 95

80 – 85

85
80 – 85

90 – 95

90 – 95

90 - 95

1 – 2 wks

6-12 mths

1 – 3 wks

1 – 2 wks
1 – 2 wks

2 – 3 wks

4 – 7 days

2 – 3 wks

Various types

 

Harvest ripe

 

Store in plastic bags
Harvest ripe

 

 

20 – 25

> 14

20

> 14
> 14

> 14

> 14

> 14

10 – 15

10 – 15

10 – 15
10 – 15

10 – 15

10 – 15

10 – 15

10 – 15

Product name

Storage temperature º C

Relative
humidity

Cooled storage

Remarks

Extended
ripening temperature º C

Serving
temperature
of fruit º C

Hard fruit

Apple
Peer
Quince

 

4 – 5
1 – 2
0 – 4

 

95
95
90

 

1 – 3 mth
1 – 2 mth
1 – 2 mth

 

 

> 14
> 14
> 14

 

10 – 15
10 - 15
10 – 15

Soft Fruit
Strawberry
Wild strawberry
Bramble
Grape

Raspberry
Melon types:
- Ordinary sugar

- Charentais

- Gallia

- Net

- Ogen

- Water
- Winter/honey
- White sugar

Orange pineapple
Rosehips
Berries
- Blue
- Red
- White
- Black
Bilberry
Cranberry
Gooseberry
Cowberry

Stoned fruit
Apricot
Cherry
Nectarine
Peach
Plum (import/
Greenhouse/
Full soil)
 

 

0 – 1
0 – 1
0 – 1
½ - 1

0 – 1

- unripe > 9
- ripe 6 - 9
- unripe > 9
- ripe 6 - 9
- unripe > 9
- ripe 6 - 9
- unripe > 9
- ripe 6 - 9
- unripe > 9
- ripe 6 - 9
12
10
- unripe > 9
- ripe 6 - 9
see pineapple
0 - 1

0 – 1
0 – 1
0 – 1
0 – 1
0 – 1
2 – 4
0 – 1
2 – 4

0 – 1
0 – 1
0 – 1
0 – 1
0 – 1

 

90 – 95
90 – 95
90
90 – 95

85 – 90

85 – 90

85 – 90

85 – 90

85 – 90

85 – 90

80
80 – 85
85 – 90

 

90

90 – 95
90
90
90
90 – 95
90
90
90

90 – 95
85 – 90
90 – 95
90 – 95
90

 

2 -  4 days
2 – 4 days
2 – 4 days
1 – 2 mths
(cool cell)
2 – 3 days

1 – 2 wks

1 – 2 wks

1 – 2 wks

1 – 2 wks

1 – 2 wks

3 – 4 wks
1 – 2 wks
1 – 2 wks

 

2 – 3 mths

1 – 2 wks
2 – 3 wks
2 – 3 wks
1 – 2 wks
2 – 4 days
3 – 4 wks
2 – 3 wks
2 – 3 wks

1 – 2 wks
2 – 6 days
2 – 3 wks
2 – 3 wks
1 – 3 wks

 

 

> 14
> 14
> 14
> 14

> 14

> 14

> 14

> 14

> 14

> 14

> 14
> 14

      1. 14

> 14

> 14
> 14
> 14
> 14
> 14
> 14
> 14

      1. 14

> 14
> 14
> 14
> 14
> 14

      1. >14

 

10 – 15
10 – 15
10 – 15
10 – 15

10 – 15

10 – 15

10 – 15

10 – 15

10 – 15

10 - 15

10 – 15
10 – 15
10 – 15

 

10 – 15

10 – 15
10 – 15
10 – 15
10 – 15
10 – 15
10 – 15
10 – 15
10 – 15

10 - 15
10 – 15
10 – 15
10 – 15
10 - 15